April 27, 2006

Quotas - an idea whose time has gone





Youth power - resisting injustice




Voice of sanity and sense
Kapil Sibal



Making others cry -
Arjun Singh


Mr. Arjun Singh, a life-long practitioner of fake secularism has been lately seeing himself in the role of the self-styled messiah of the minorities and OBCs.

In his desperate attempt to remain in the limelight in the face of an ebbing and lackluster political career and with fear of being consigned to oblivion by his own party, he is trying to play base politics that may well result in ensuring that the country is never rid of caste and religion based thinking and in dividing up the 'generation next' of the country.

In pushing for reservations for OBCs in higher education that will have far reaching repercussions on the country in the years to come, he is trying to fool the people by claiming that the government is duty bound to do so in terms of the mandate of the 93rd Amendment to the Constitution. This is a patently mala fide misrepresentation and a bogus argument. The 93rd Amendment simply makes an enabling provision that allows the Government to make special provisions for socially or economically backward classes of citizens related to admission to educational institutions. To buttress his argument, he is making much of the fact that the amendment was supported by all political parties. Even if that were so, the amendment DOES NOT PLACE ANY COMPULSION on the Government that it must impose the quota raj that is being proposed. For that matter, the amendment does not even say that the special provisions that the government is enabled to make must be in the form of reservations and quotas. (Read the actual Amendment Act).

It must be realised that it is the young generation of this country that is going to build its future. The V.P. Singhs and Arjuns Singhs who try to push for such reservations for petty career gains or politics of the vote bank are not going to be around to be accountable for their acts when the adverse impacts of such divisive policies become evident.

It is indeed heartening to note that the young generation has rightly come out to oppose the proposed reservations policy. From the interviews in the visual media with many of the young students, it is clear that there is strong logic, clarity and the courage of convictions behind their opposition. On the other hand, some of the advocates of such reservations have been seen and heard proposing palpably unintelligent and even laughable arguments. For example, one of the justifications proposed by a lady professor of a university in Delhi on a discussion on TV was to the effect that in any case there were thousands of applicants even with merit whereas the seats were not enough. Ipso facto, reservations would not matter, she seemed to imply. Another advocate for the quota said that there were students who had studied in schools where there was only one teacher. Therefore, such students needed reservations. Can any government that takes decisions influencd by such arguments be considered fit to govern in 21st Century India?

It is unfortunate that students who wanted to meet Arjun Singh and seek his explanations were stopped and manhandled. Arjun Singh, the politician that he is, shed glycerine tears saying "I was pained...that the students were not allowed to see me". Not allowed by whom?? Realising the mood the students, when he did meet them, he deftly took refuge under the Election Commission query to the Government on his earlier announcement and also sought to deflect his own responsibility by saying that he would speak to the Prime Minister!! At the same time, it is reasonably certain that wheels would have been already set in motion to identify the leaders of the struggle and divide or isolate them in ways that the politicians know best. If nothing else, Arjun Singh is a past master in handling opposition and dissent. He knows very well how to take the wind out of opposition and the same fate may await the well intentioned but politically naive students.

On the other hand, Kapil Sibal, who understands the Constitution as well as anyone else, who is the Science & Technology Minister and understands his own reponsibilities, publicly gave words to his thoughts that he does not favour any actions "that would dilute the levels of excellence". The country needs more such politicians who do not simply go by the caste and religion based vote bank games that the old school politicians have been practicing and continue to practice. The people also need to show the door to those politicians whose time has gone, and keep them from doing more harm to the social fabric of the country.

More power to those who speak their mind against divisive policies and more power to the young generation to maintain clarity of their objectives and bring their present struggle to a conclusion that will strengthen the country in the future, not weaken it.

PERHAPS, IT IS AN OPPORTUNE TIME TO BRING ABOUT A CHANGE TO BRING TO AN END EVEN THE EXISTING QUOTA BASED POLICIES IN A TIME BOUND MANNER.



28 comments:

Dr. Madhu Chauhan said...

These comments apply not only to medical colleges but every other area wherever the state or central governments have a policy of reservations.

It is evident that politicians will NOT TAKE THE LEAD IN CHANGING THE SITUATION because they will be afraid of losing their votes. Such great is the fear developed over the years due to their own lack of vision and narrow mindedness.

ONLY THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES will have to take the initiative. If people take the lead, the so-called leader politicians will follow.

Prathamesh said...

I wonder how people in the South have been putting up with such reservations of a high order for so long.

Does it mean they do not have merit?

It is time the young generation in the Southern States also start seriously thinking.

sudhanshu said...

Another interesting thing that I read today was that Arjun Singh has asked the students in the medical colleges to put off the strike and that the government would talk about this issue again after the elections.

The strange part is that the students agreed. I might be paranoid, but I think that is fishy. If the students were protesting against the reservations, it was mighty clear that this move was to get the vote banks.

Now even if the government reduces the reservation after the polls, they would still get the vote bank, which is not what we or the OBC's want.

I have nothing against the OBC's personally and I'm sure they don't have anything against me too, all we want is that politicians are not playing silly politics with us. But it looks like the students have agreed to become pawns in the process.

Lalwani said...

I fully endorse Sudhansu, the politicians of Arjun Singh type are too cunning to let any genuine struggle survive.

The article also makes a reference of what is likely to happen.

tanvi said...

I completely agree reservations have been around for over five decades and have made no difference except assisting oppurtunistic politicians pandering for vote bank politics and those among the so called backward sections who are no longer backward by virtue of economic standing. Singh took this lousy step keeping an eye on the state elections and as sudhansu says he should not be allowed to use poliotical tactics to his electoral advantage. Instead of reservations why can't we improve on basic education. For the backward sections why not stick to skill building and scholarships? Anyway in a globalised society its not caste but merit and efficiency which decides one's future so effort should be to build on them. Dividing a society in name of caste and religion are perverse tactics used by good for nothing politicians like Singh.

Atlantean said...

India's demographic makeup has changed a lot in the past 60 years and so the reservation system should also change accordingly. It is that simple.

What we need is a reservation system based on economic backwardness i.e., it is time the caste factor is taken out. I say that because there are pockets of affluence even in the SC/ST/OBC communities. If this is done, a poor SC/ST/OBC will reap benefits of their reservation quotas and the rich ones will be kept off to fend for themselves. It cant get fairer than this.

Some measures like the creamy layer norm for OBCs serve this purpose partially. Similar measures must be applied to the SC/STs.

Anyway, that would only be a temporary measure. What is required is a complete overhaul - by a system which is based on recent data and one which takes current conditions into account.

It does seem this move was politically motivated. Elections are ahead. This is the best test for the people. We'll get to know if people still choose to be dumb or if they'll exercise their voting rights to good effect.

Kantikumar Midha said...

Unfortunately, what the young generation realises, the old foggies in the government and the opposition do not.

Even if they do realise the new realities they are all afraid to take the bull by the horn.

Anonymous said...

The reason why in states like Tamilnadu there is no protest, is that there is a skewed situation whereby over 80% of the population qualify as quota category. Therefore, there is strong vested interest.

please see comments of one max and replies to that at:

http://www.ibnlive.com/news/students-continue-stir-against-quota/8987/read_comments.html#

G. Premchand said...

Why blame Arjun Singh. His party chief wants it. The Left parties want it.

In general, governments that have failed to deliver the goods including Central or State (Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamilnadu) all want to implement these quotas to get attention of the people diverted from development issues and governance where they have FAILED THE PEOPLE. That can be the only plausible reason for continuing with this divisive policy.

K.Midha said...

comments of atlantean about cremay layer are appreciated.

However the time has come when this type of leeway should also not be offered so that the system does not continue for ever.

Time is now to initiate thinking on how to stop the system in the next few years.

Anonymous said...

Tell me why there should be no reservations/quotas in India after having read the following .

Reservations and quotas are a form of Affirmative action.

What is affirmative action ?
Affirmative action is a policy or a program aimed at increasing the representation of members of groups that have traditionally been discriminated against. This typically focuses on education,employment, government contracts ,health care or social welfare.

Just look at how it is practiced in the following countries :

American President Lyndon Johnson said "You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line in a race and then say, 'you are free to compete with all the others', and still justly believe that you have been completely fair."

In USA : American President Lyndon Johnson brought in affirmative action by an “excecutive order” . The order aims "to correct the effects of past and present discrimination".

The order specifically requires certain organizations accepting federal funds to take affirmative action to increase employment of members of preferred racial or ethnic groups and women. Any organization with fifty or more employees and an aggregate revenue exceeding $50,000 from a single federal contract during a twelve month period must have a written affirmative action plan. This plan must include goals and timetables for achieving full utilization of women and members of racial minorities, in quotas based on an analysis of the current workforce compared to the availability in the general labor pool of women and members of racial minorities.

In Japan : there are informal policy to provide employment and long term welfare (which is usually not available to general public) to Burakumin (untouchables).

In Brazil :Brazilian Universities (State or Federal) have created systems of preferred admissions (quotas) for racial minorities (blacks and native Brazilians), the poor and the handicapped. There are also quotas for the disabled in the civil public services.

In Malaysia :there are laws called bumiputra laws which are a form of affirmative action meant to provide more opportunity for the majority ethnic Malay population versus the historical financial dominance of the Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indian populations.

In New Zealand :individuals of Maori or other Polynesian descent are often afforded preferential access to university courses, and scholarships.

In South Africa : there is a the Employment Equity Act aims to promote and achieve equity in the workplace, by encouraging equal opportunity amongst all workers. It includes efforts to identify reasons for inequalities and change the employment rates of previously underrepresented groups for a more equitable job market.

In UK: according to the Good Friday Agreement the law requires that the Police Service of Northern Ireland recruit equal numbers of Catholics and non Catholics.

In Indonesia: affirmative action programs give natives preference over Han Chinese who have immigrated into the country.

In Macedonia :minorities, most notably Albanians, are allocated quotas for access to state universities, as well as in civil public services.

In China : there is a quota for minority representatives in the National Assembly in Beijing, as well as other realms of government.

In the European Union: there is an antiracism directive which concerns the application of the principle of equality without regard to race or ethnic origin. This anti-racism directive, is to be implemented in national law of the member states.

In Germany :there are programs stating that if men and women had equal qualifications, women had to be preferred for a job. The anti-discrimination law which is yet to pass, aims at improving the protection of minorities.

Belgium government :proposed in January 2006 a measure that will make some job opportunities available exclusively to immigrants, disabled and elderly people.

American President Lyndon Johnson said "You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line in a race and then say, 'you are free to compete with all the others', and still justly believe that you have been completely fair."

Why should I belive you when you tell me reservations will harm India when much of the developed world does believe that social justice can be done by reservation/quotas for those that are discriminated against?

Kannan said...

Hey dude, anonymous, you seem to be confused.

You have given various examples some of which are oranges when we are talking of apples.

Also, the question of reservations based on OBC is a very complex one and the Indian situation is different than most other societies with a more or less cohesive structure.

A discussion of even the Indian situation is very complex and it is not possible to explain in readers' comments to those who are not having a good background,as to what is wrong with quotas and reservations.

Suffice it to say, tnat time has come to do away with the existing reservations in a time bound manner, not to enhance the scope.

dr patki said...

Bravo reservation, the post of President of India should be reserved for SC, prime minister is for ST and Finance minister post should be for OBC. The parliment too should have 50% reservation to our backward friends, the post of Chief of Army should be for SC, that of Air force be for ST and Navy for OBC. All MCh and DM seats in various categories should fe fully reserved for OBC ( to cover up late reservation).Open category candidates should be barred from all IITs and IIMs for the next 5 years. India should show to the world how good we are in social justice.
An important agenda, Mr Arjunsingh should vacate his post and give it to Meerakumar immediately.

tanvi said...

The last bit was cool. The medical students reps must make this suggestion to singh lets see him sheding some morwe crocodile tears.

kannan said...

full marks to dr. patki above.

we should start with his last suggestion first.

i wonder what mr singh (or mr chidambaram who is supporting him) would have done if he himself in his career at some point would have been prevented from pursuing anything whether in academics or politics because of reservation.

Atlantean said...

Anonymous, we know what affirmative action is, thank you. And, so what if the whole developed world has reservation of some kind?

I'm not saying there should be no affirmative action. We're all protesting only about the unfairness of the present system. We need a new one, one which makes more sense in this country at this time.

kannan said...

comments of atlantean makes sense.

One unfortunate part is that because of the sensitivities that the political parties themselves have created over the years, even opposition parties like BJp are sitting on the fence.
As someone rightly said, no political party wants to bell the cat and say that the emperor is not wearing any clothes.

Anonymous said...

Man is a social animal . And he forms communities to work with , marry ,socialise .

In the pre-agricultural economy of forest ,communities are tribes .
In agricultural economies of village, communities are the traditional castes (like you see in India) . Perfect conditions in agricuture through history made castes a widely practiced phenomenon in the subcontinent . Even religious conversion has failed to remove the caste system .Caste clearly follows a different dynamic which has nothing to do with religion .
In industrial economies of city based, communities are a new “cosmopolitan caste”.

These three kinds of economies 1) tribal ,2) village(traditional caste) and 3)city (cosmopolitan caste) have fashioned the modern nation as it exists today .Most modern nations are have come into existence during the Industrial revolution .

Modern nations all over the world have had to grapple with the problem of how to assimilate those left behind in the forests and villages in pre-agricultural or agricultural economies . In India due to poor economy growth the problems are vastly more acute .



We cannot wish away the existence of these pre-agricultural tribes or agricutural castes and exclude them from our industrial cosmopolitan caste.

Forest covers are disappearing. The very habitat of the tribal in endangered .

And its tough to compete with the developed countries Industrial technology based agriculture with India’s traditional pre-industrial agriculture . Take for example today 57 of the Indian population is engaged in non- machine aided agrarian activities, this translates into an Indian food worker producing enough food for himself and a surplus for another Indian.We are still importing food from time to time. Contrast this to US, where less than two percent of American population is engaged in machine aided agriculture or related activities. An American farmer produces enough food for 50 people including himself, with even more left over for export. Therefore the American farmer is very productive and very rich by comparison.
Agriculture needs water. Water table is receding in India. Today 70 per cent of irrigation needs and 80 per cent of domestic water supplies in India are met through pumping up groundwater through tube wells. But this massively deployed private response to public failure can only be temporary. Water tables are plummeting and aquifers are running dry. Estimates show that 15 per cent of aquifers are already critical and the number is projected to rise to 60 per cent in just twenty years .
For more read http://www.rediff.com/news/1998/apr/28water.htm

With each passing generation inherits ,the share of the agricultural land of each subsequent generation becomes less and less . When each person has a very small plot of land you cannot have advantages of scale .

Traditional means of incomes are drying up in forests and villages .

Farmers have been commiting suicide . Naxalites philosophies are attracting a greater following in some jungles. Situation is grim . There remains a large part of population simply unequipped with skill set required to compete in the industrial/service world . We have a tragedy of enormous proportions staring in our face .

Castes are a form of social stratification from the agriculture economy era . Some castes have been able to make the shift to industrial economy to become a member of the new cosmopolitan caste to a greater extent than others .

Castes in India are endogamous . Majority of indians still marry within their castes .The sense of traditional caste is weak for the new cosmopolitan castes in urban Indians as they work in industries in these cities .In their case a more cosmopolitan anglacised sense of community has replaced the pre-industrial traditional caste system. This is simply the industrial version of the traditional caste system .Members of this new cosmopolitan caste also practice endogamy . They marry their own kind . And prefer to work ,live and socialise with their own kind . It is an unacknowledged caste in the sense they see themselves above the caste system . “Caste no bar” if you belong to this cosmopolitan caste . Looking through the matrimonial advertisements in news papers or surf through matrimonial sites on the web . You will see right away that those who consider themselves diehard cosmopolitan is miniscule .Most people still retain that weak link to the traditional caste system when it comes to important decisions like marriage .

What needs to be kept in mind that people prefer to work with their own castes . For example for his medical needs someone from the cosmopolitan caste is not likely to see a general practioner who has poor english skills. In the same way someone who is a say from a tribal village is unlikely to be comfortable with a general practioner who is a english speaking westernised dandy. Where possible people go to physicians who they consider as one of their own, some one who speak their language and understand their lifestyle .

You see this same division in private sector as well. If you are corporate entity and your company has predominantly members from the Cosmopolitan caste you are likely to reject someone who does not seem to reflect your cosmopolitan culture,especially for the important high profile,high visibilty appointments . Companies call this “cultural fit”.

Will Azimbhai Premji announce that the next owner of Wipro will not be his son? Will he make that decision on merit ? Why did Ratan Tata succeed Bharat Ratna JRD Tata ? Was he the most accomplished person in the Tata empire ? So you see the cosmopolitan caste reserves the topmost creamy posts to one of their own in a very similar way like the traditional caste system .These posts are very much “Reserved” . If the english speaking members of the cosmopolitan caste fails entrance exams , group discussion, interviews all of which are often conducted in English , then there are always management quotas ,governing body quotas ,NRI quotas ,paid seats within India or paid seats abroad all of which can be accessed with money or influence .


Owners or management recruiters from each caste almost always recruit people from their own castes .Some one of their own kind . If you do not have enough members of your own caste as recruiters whether it is government or private jobs the entry points into the industrial economy drastically come down. Each caste has its ‘Creamy’ layer .Some castes have very thick layers of cream . Some castes have a thinner layer compared to their size. Thick or thin…. this creamy layer is its entry point into the industrial world .

This problem is by no means peculiar to India .What is different is the sheer magnitude of the problem .

Governments all over the world use “affirmative action” to remedy this serious problem.

Reservations and quotas are a form of Affirmative action.

What is affirmative action ?
Affirmative action is a policy or a program aimed at increasing the representation of members of groups that have traditionally been discriminated against. This typically focuses on education,employment, government contracts ,health care or social welfare.

Just look at how it is practiced in the following countries :

American President Lyndon Johnson said "You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line in a race and then say, 'you are free to compete with all the others', and still justly believe that you have been completely fair."

In USA : American President Lyndon Johnson brought in affirmative action by an “excecutive order” . The order aims "to correct the effects of past and present discrimination".

The order specifically requires certain organizations accepting federal funds to take affirmative action to increase employment of members of preferred racial or ethnic groups and women. Any organization with fifty or more employees and an aggregate revenue exceeding $50,000 from a single federal contract during a twelve month period must have a written affirmative action plan. This plan must include goals and timetables for achieving full utilization of women and members of racial minorities, in quotas based on an analysis of the current workforce compared to the availability in the general labor pool of women and members of racial minorities.

Regarding Native Americans there are today more than 563 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States. The United States recognizes the right of these tribes to self-government and supports their tribal sovereignty and self-determination. These tribes possess the right to form their own government, to enforce laws (both civil and criminal), to tax, to establish membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone and to exclude persons from tribal territories. The recognition confers benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and they can apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans.

In Japan : there is an informal policy to provide employment and long term welfare (which is usually not available to general public) to Burakumin (untouchables).

In Brazil :Brazilian Universities (State or Federal) have created systems of preferred admissions (quotas) for racial minorities (blacks and native Brazilians), the poor and the handicapped. There are also quotas for the disabled in the civil public services.

In Malaysia :there are laws called bumiputra laws which are a form of affirmative action meant to provide more opportunity for the majority ethnic Malay population versus the historical financial dominance of the Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indian populations.

In New Zealand :individuals of Maori or other Polynesian descent are often afforded preferential access to university courses, and scholarships.

In South Africa : there is a the Employment Equity Act aims to promote and achieve equity in the workplace, by encouraging equal opportunity amongst all workers. It includes efforts to identify reasons for inequalities and change the employment rates of previously underrepresented groups for a more equitable job market.

In UK: according to the Good Friday Agreement the law requires that the Police Service of Northern Ireland recruit equal numbers of Catholics and non Catholics.

In Indonesia: affirmative action programs give natives preference over Han Chinese who have immigrated into the country.

In Macedonia :minorities, most notably Albanians, are allocated quotas for access to state universities, as well as in civil public services.

In China : there is a quota for minority representatives in the National Assembly in Beijing, as well as other realms of government.

In the European Union: there is an antiracism directive which concerns the application of the principle of equality without regard to race or ethnic origin. This anti-racism directive, is to be implemented in national law of the member states.

In Germany :there are programs stating that if men and women had equal qualifications, women had to be preferred for a job. The anti-discrimination law which is yet to pass, aims at improving the protection of minorities.

Belgium government :proposed in January 2006 a measure that will make some job opportunities available exclusively to immigrants, disabled and elderly people.

Much of the developed world does believe that social justice can be done by reservation/quotas for those that are discriminated against.


Dalit issues of India have already been linked with human rights issue in International forum like the UN .

To repeat what past American President Lyndon Johnson said "You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line in a race and then say, 'you are free to compete with all the others', and still justly believe that you have been completely fair."

Karmali said...

anonymous has tried to give quite some details on different matters.

The fact is that we have to speak of our own situation and take a decision that will take the country forward not remain in a time capsule.
Reservations and quotas should be talked of in terms of the past not the future.

Anonymous said...

Kudos to anonymous for highlighting the concept of reservations for the various communities in the various countries of the world. While the reservations which were present were ok, any increase in these will have to consider whether the 50% quota is really required. Keeping the merit or demerit of the reserved category student aside, I was aghast at the racist comments given by the agitators and few other mediahungry youth in various discussions. How does it matter if a person from reserved or non-reserved category comes to treat a patient? Does it mean that only gold and silver medalists from these non-reserved categories must treat patients. In the practice of medicine marks never count, only your skills and confidence counts. I myself have seen many of the so called achievers from non-reserved categories make horrible blunders while treating patients, whereas the other students were cautious. The statement that one person gave to a news channel after the agitation of the Delhi medicos is pathetic and reeks of extreme racism. They had the guts to ask the news reporter if he would like if a oerson of reserved category came to treat an emergency. It is demeaning to put down your colleagues just because they have come from the reserved category. I have seen many students who were non-achievers in medical subjects go ahead and make pathbreaking discoveries and modifiactions whereas the so called non-reserved gold and silver medalists were seen to be only book worms. Whether a person has entered medicine on reserved or non-reserved category, they have to pass through the asme exams and practicals to become the specialists. To say that a person who has taken few more years to complete his studies is bad at treating patients is totally irresponsible. I would like to ask these medicos to finish studies and then see how such things never matter in private practice.

S.P. Kamble said...

The comments above are justified and it is indeed demeaning to ask such amateur and thoughtless questions about being treated by a reservationist etc.

However, the point at issue is completely different. Obviously, when a person passes the exam and is declared an MBBS etc. he is fit whether he is high class or sc/st or obc.

The main point is about quotas at the time of entrance which is what the government is trying to do and give preference to caste and community rather than merit for entering into the higher education course.

Anonymous said...

@Anon above
Please do some reading on Affirmative action in the US before commenting. US style affirmative action is not the 50% reservation that you are talking about. Coming reservations in India some of the questions are what should be the percentage, who should be the benefecaries, how long should it exist? Mandal commission report is based on the demographics of 1930s. How can we use 80 year data to provide "affirmative" action today? What about the rich and powerful "backward" classes? What about women, who irrespective of their caste, are backward according to Mandal report?

Dr. M. Kachwala said...

Long and short of what previous reader says, my view is that any compulsory reservation is complex and will raise more questions and demands from more and more segments for such reservations even based on religion. There is no scientific basis because by very definition, these reservations are based on subjective criteria.

Anonymous said...

Arjun singh is an ambitious politician, has a vested intersts for example future of his son in MP, ALSO SEEMS TO HAVE AN EYE ON PRESIDENTSCY and is well known to be a manipulator.
Unfortunately , we are not offering resistance, hence he is getting away
No politician will oppose this since they have a fear (not out of a genuine intersts in SC/ST/OBSs)of being antagonised by other opposing political party.In the whole process one thing that is going to emrge is these premium institute's quality, since they will be filled with sub optimal performers in the name of reservation.Reservations can be given as financial support, make everyone compete only then quality will be maitained

N. Ramachandra said...

Anonymous has absolutely rightly said that no politician would oppose this proposal for fear of losing out. This is being cleverly manipulated by the Congress and Arjun Singh in particular.

Congress has always been full of manipulators.

The people only can teach them a lesson.

Dr. Ajmera said...

The government is now using strong arm tactics to do what it wants.

swati said...

SEE FINALLY GOVT. HAS DONE WHAT IT WANTED TO DO. WE ARE LEARNING SOMETHING FROM HISTORY OF DICTATORSHIPS AND MILITARY REGIMES

Memoryking said...

Read your blog.Liked it a lot.Here is mine http://www.emotionalzombie.blogspot.com/
"You say, if a student knows a seat is reserved for him he is not going to work towards it. Ask yourself- If a person knows Education is subsidized for his kids, food items are subsidized for him, is he going to work? Isn’t it harming the Economy? Isn’t the highly subsidized education we avail a classic example of social injustice? "